Artifact hunting, or artifacting, is an exploration activity, allowing you to find unique items and resources.
It's recommended to start off with Basic geochemistry (5), to further improve on your geoscanner's accuracy.
Start with loading your geoscanner with artfact scan charges. They come in three varieties: R-10, R-30 and R-50. They offer respectively 1000 meters, 3000 meters and 5000 meters scanning range. Start with the R-50 and hit the geoscanner. In your scanner window, artifacts in range will now show up (if not, move about 1000 meters in any direction and try again). Each artifact will be shown with a distance from your current location.
Pick an artifact closest to your position and proceed to move around in straight lines and determine how the distance from your previous scans changed; e.g. if the number goes down with the distance you travel, you're going straight towards it. If the number goes down, but not as fast as you're moving, try changing direction to see if that helps. If the number goes up, you're moving away from the artifact and need to turn around. You can switch to lower range scan charges once you're getting close.
While most artifacts are just containers (once you've discovered them), there's two types you'll have to careful with: infestation and observer stash artifacts. With a fast bot, you can trigger infestation artifacts, quickly open the container (select it and press 'V'), grab the items inside (press 'G') and run away. Observer stash artifacts are a lot harder, so try to avoid them at first.
On a single island, you can find 10 artifacts at any time (once you've found one, another one will show up somewhere). These artifacts are unique to your agent; only you can find them.